Here’s more partial answers to 10 Things Most Catholics Don’t Know:
7. Why some Protestant clergy are given Pastor as their title, but pastors of Catholic parishes are never addressed as Pastor.
The term “pastor” from the Latin “pastor” (shepherd)has been around since at least 400 A.D., according to Wikipedia, but it fell out of favor as “priest” took over. Early Protestant reformers, Calvin and Zwingli, re-appropriated the title “pastor” in order to replace “priest” in the minds of their followers. The use of “pastor” to describe a Catholic parish priest is principally a North American usage. I know that I had never heard of a parish priest being referred to as the Pastor until I came to the United States. BTW, the same Wikipedia article, states that there as many “former pastors” who have left ministry as there are active ones…
6. Why do Catholic dioceses have Vicars. Isn’t that an Episcopalian term?
I probably should have said Anglican rather than Episcopalian because in the British Isles the use of “Vicar” is quite common, but in the United States the preferred title is “Rector.” “Vicar,” from the Latin vicarius (representative, deputy, agent), has been in use since the time of the Holy Roman Empire. Wikipedia, that font of knowledge, tells us that, “In Catholic canon law, a vicar is the representative of any ecclesiastic entity.” So, certain diocesan office holders, (such as the bishop’s delegate for priests and deacons), are known as Vicars.
The Pope, of course, is called the Vicar of Christ. The title, apparently, dates to the 8th Century. Before that, the Pope was known as “the Vicar of St. Peter.”
5. Why Catholics and Protestants tend to place different emphases on the role of Scripture.
My theory, expounded already in a response to a comment, is that the Catholic worldview is highly sacramentalized – the relationship between God and humanity is mediated through the Scriptures, the Sacraments, Tradition, through the Communion of Saints, the People of God and in a variety of ways. Reacting to abuses within the Roman Church, Protestant Reformers emphasized a direct un-mediated relationship between God and the human race. They professed that the Scriptures possessed all knowledge necessary for holiness and for salvation.
Protestant Churches took the lead in providing Bibles for their believers and, perhaps in reaction, the Catholic Church until quite recently held back from actively promoting the reading of the Scriptures. Happily, we’ve come to our senses on that one.